by Jerry Thomas
Distribution is often an unrecognized and under-appreciated element of strategy, yet it is almost always an important factor in a winning strategy. Distribution refers to the channels, logistics and processes to move products and services from the point of manufacture, production, or creation to the ultimate end-users. When “distribution” is linked to “strategy,” the question is: How can distribution serve as a component or variable to support a company’s overall business and marketing strategy?
Starbucks created a new distribution system for coffee, featuring its own stores and coffee shops, although the economics might have been better if Starbucks had simply sold its coffee in grocery stores and supermarkets. In the beginning years, however, it’s likely that Starbucks did not have the financial wherewithal for the heavy advertising, slotting allowances, and sales-development expenses required to achieve distribution in the supermarket channel. Nor did Starbucks have the brand awareness and reputation that would have allowed it to challenge the major national coffee brands in supermarkets. So, Starbucks wisely chose to develop its own distribution system and its own retail stores. This distribution strategy has been a key element in Starbucks’ success.
There are an unlimited number of companies and examples of distribution strategies that helped propel those companies to success. Here are some of the ways that distribution can play a key role in your business strategy:
Open new markets
Opening up a new channel of distribution, or expanding distribution into new geographic areas, can give new groups or new types of consumers access to a company’s products or services. For example, a coffee manufacturer selling its coffees only in supermarkets might decide to buy its own trucks and start an office coffee business to deliver its coffees directly to workplaces.
Speed up delivery
Distributing a product or service more quickly is sometimes enough of an advantage to justify a new distribution strategy. Amazon combined speed-of-delivery with a direct-to-consumer business model to forge its distribution strategy.
If a new system of distribution or improved logistics can significantly reduce costs and improve profit margins, then that distribution strategy might be worthy of pursuit. For example, if a retailer is operating a very expensive retail-store distribution system, the chain might benefit from shifting some of its sales to an online distribution system to save money.
If retail out-of-stocks is a major problem in an industry or product category, then a new distribution strategy might be called for. Often, an out-of-stocks problem must be attacked with one eye on marketing and promotional activities and the other eye on supply chain and logistics.
If a small company with limited resources has developed an appealing new product but can’t get its new product on the shelf in retail stores, then it could approach a major retailer and offer to distribute its new product exclusively in that retailer’s stores. While this strategy limits the upside potential of a new product because it limits distribution possibilities, it might still be a wise strategy for a small company (limited distribution is better than no distribution).
Burnish a brand image
The types of stores a product is placed in can shape and reinforce the consumer’s image of that brand. A luxury brand might choose to be distributed exclusively in upscale, high-end retail stores. In contrast, a brand targeting a mass market might seek distribution in every channel and every nook and cranny of the economy.
Block a competitor
If a manufacturer should become aware that a major competitor is planning to massively expand its online presence and direct-to-consumer business activity, then that manufacturer might aggressively expand its own direct-to-consumer channel of distribution as a blocking action or delaying tactic to blunt the competitor’s actions.
These are the primary (but not the only) ways that distribution can play a direct or supporting role in strategy. But how does a company get to an optimal distribution strategy? The types of research of greatest value in developing an optimal distribution strategy for a given brand or business are listed below:
among consumers, customers, dealers, salespeople, and workers in the distribution system provides observations, understanding, and knowledge that can suggest viable distribution strategies, identify logistic alternatives, and develop hypotheses about how to improve or optimize a distribution network.
yields statistically projectable knowledge about the attitudes, observations, and behaviors of consumers, retailers, dealers, and distribution workers. The goal is to not only prove or disprove some of the major hypotheses developed during the Qualitative research but also to determine the relative appeal of various distribution models to end-customers, retailers, dealers, distributors, etc.
is often used to help optimize a distribution system. Such data might include population and demographic data; economic data and trends; consumer spending data by product category and type of household; transportation alternatives, delivery times, and relative costs; traffic patterns and congestion data; competitive data, etc.
Modeling and optimization
is the final step to combine all of this knowledge with the hypotheses, preferences, and the many types of data into one or more simulation models so that optimal solutions can be sought. The modeling process involves maximizing or minimizing a desired outcome, given various inputs and constraints.
The exact types of research, data, and modeling needed to craft an optimal distribution strategy varies by business, category, and brand, but hopefully some of these ideas and concepts will stimulate your own thinking about how an optimal distribution strategy can shape and magnify your brand’s overall strategy and its long-term success.